Hd8

General NeurophysiologyGeneral Neurophysiology

Effect of Chronic Stress on Synaptic Currents in Rat Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Neurons by Karst H and Joëls M

We investigated the effect of chronic stress on synaptic responses of rat dentate granule cells to perforant path stimulation. Rats were subjected for 3 wk to unpredictable stressors twice daily or to control handling. One day after the last stressor, hippocampal slices were prepared and synaptic responses were determined with whole-cell recording.

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The Neurobiology of Stress: From Serendipity to Clinical Relevance (abs.) by McEwen BS

The hormones and other physiological agents that mediate the effects of stress on the body have protective and adaptive effects in the short run and yet can accelerate pathophysiology when they are over-produced or mismanaged.

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Attachment Security: A Meta-Analysis of maternal mental health correlates (abs.) by Atkinson L, Paglia A, Coolbear J, Niccols A, Parker KC, Guger S

This meta-analysis addresses the association between attachment security and each of three maternal mental health correlates. The meta-analysis is based on 35 studies, 39 samples, and 2,064 mother-child pairs.

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Positive and Negative Emotional Verbal Stimuli Elicit Activity in the Left Amygdala (abs.) by Hamann S and Mao H

The human amygdala’s involvement in negative emotion is well established, but relatively little is known regarding its role in positive emotion.

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation After Pure Motor Stroke (abs.) by Pennisi G, Alagona G, Rapisarda G, Nicoletti F, Costanzo E, Ferri R, Malaguarnera M, Bella R

The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in demonstrating the possible subclinical impairment of the corticospinal pathway after recovery, in patients with a clinical history of pure motor stroke (PMS) due to a single lacunar infarct detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Conduction Velocity of Nerve and Muscle Fiber Action Potentials After a Space Mission or a Bed Rest (abs.) by Ruegg DG, Kakebeeke TH, Gabriel JP, Bennefeld M

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the readaptation of a human muscle after a prolonged stay in microgravity and after a bed rest of several months.

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The Importance of the Dominant Hemisphere in the Organization of Bimanual Movements (abs.) by Serrien DJ, Cassidy MJ, Brown P

The successful control of upper limb movements is an essential skill of the human motor system. Yet, the neural organization of bimanual actions remains an issue of debate.

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Distinct Brain Regions Associated with Syllable and Phoneme (abs.) by Siok WT, Jin Z, Fletcher P, Tan LH

The syllable and the phoneme are two important units in the phonological structure of speech sounds. In the brain mapping literature, it remains unsolved as to whether there are separate brain regions mediating the processing of syllables and phonemes.

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Neural Systems of Second Language Reading are Shaped by Native Language (abs.) by Tan LH, Spinks JA, Feng CM, Siok WT, Perfetti CA, Xiong J, Fox P, Gao JH

Reading in a second language (L2) is a complex task that entails an interaction between L2 and the native language (L1).

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Posterior Cingulate Cortex Activation by Emotional Words: fMRI Evidence from a Valence Decision Task (abs.) by Maddock RJ, Garrett AS, Buonocore MH

Functional imaging studies consistently find that emotional stimuli activate the posterior cingulate cortex, a region that appears to have memory-related functions. However, prior imaging studies have not controlled for non-emotional stimulus features that might activate this region by engaging memory processes unrelated to emotion.

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Temporo-Spatial Correlations Between Scalp and Centromedian Thalamic EEG Activities of Stage II Slow Wave Sleep in Patients with Generalized Seizures of the Cryptogenic Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (abs.) by Velasco M, Eugenia-Díaz-de Leon A, Márquez I, Brito F, Carrillo-Ruiz JD, Velasco AL, Velasco F

Temporo-spatial correlations between scalp and centromedian thalamic (CM) normal and abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activities of stage II slow wave sleep (SWS II) were investigated in 5 patients with cryptogenic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (CLGS).

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Visualization of Significant ERD/ERS Patterns in Multichannel EEG and ECoG Data (abs.) by Graimann B, Huggins JE, Levine SP, Pfurtscheller G

Analysis of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) often requires the investigation of diverse frequency bands. Such analysis can be difficult, especially when using multichannel data.

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Epileptic Source Localization with High Density EEG: How Many Electrodes are Needed? by Lantz G, Grave de Peralta R, Spinelli L, Seeck M, Michel CM

Electroencephalography (EEG) source reconstruction is becoming recognized as a useful technique to non-invasively localize the epileptic focus. Whereas, large array magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are available since quite some time, application difficulties have previously prevented multichannel EEG recordings.

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Do Obsessive-Compulsive Patients and Abstinent Heroin Addicts Share a Common Psychophysiological Mechanism? (abs.) by Papageorgiou C, Rabavilas A, Liappas I, Stefanis C

Working memory (WM) and attentional deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and opioid addiction.

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Executive Dysfunction Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Neural Substrates and Treatment Strategies (abs.) by McDonald BC, Flashman LA, Saykin AJ

Executive dysfunction is among the most common and disabling aspects of cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may include deficits in reasoning, planning, concept formation, mental flexibility, aspects of attention and awareness, and purposeful behavior.

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Effects of Age and Speed of Processing on rCBF Correlates of Syntactic Processing in Sentence Comprehension (abs.) by Caplan D, Waters G, Alpert N

Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to determine the effect of age on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during syntactic processing in sentence comprehension.

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More “Mapping” in Brain Mapping: Statistical Comparison of Effects (abs.) by Jernigan TL, Gamst AC, Fennema-Notestin C, Ostergaard AL

The term “mapping” in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain.

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The Potential Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury by Arenander AT Ph.D.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can present as interrelated problems of neurophysiological imbalance and incoherence. Even “mild” TBI can have devastating effects on the injured individual as well as the family.

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Quantitative Electroencephalographic Comodulation: An Investigation of Patterns in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (abs.) by Lorensen TD and Gow KM Ph.D.

This is a pilot study of quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) comodulation analysis, which is used to assist in identifying regional brain differences in those people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to a normative database.

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Imaging a Cognitive Model of Apraxia: The Neural Substrate of Gesture-Specific Cognitive Processes (abs.) by Peigneux P, Van der Linden M, Garraux G, Laureys S, Degueldre C, Aerts J, Del Fiore G, Moonen G, Luxen A, Salmon E

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press].

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Genetic Influences on the Spontaneous EEG: An Examination of 15-Year-Old and 17-Year-Old Twins by McGuire KA, Katsanis J, Iacono W, McGue M

In this study, the authors investigated the presence of genetic influences and devel­ opment on the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) by examining the similarity of 15- and 17-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.

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Frontal EEG Response to Threat, Aggressive Traits and a Family History of Alcoholism: A Preliminary Study by Finn PR, Ramsey SE, Earleywine M

his study investigated the association between frontal EEG response to threat, a family history of alcoholism (positive history = FHP, negative = FHN), aggressive – antisocial traits and negative affect.

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Synaptic Interactions Between Thalamic and Cortical Inputs onto Cortical Neurons in Vivo (abs.) by Fuentealba P, Crochet S, Timofeev I, Steriade M

To study the interactions between thalamic and cortical inputs onto neocortical neurons, we used paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) of thalamic and cortical inputs as well as PPS of two cortical or two thalamic inputs that converged, at different time intervals, onto intracellularly recorded cortical and thalamocortical neurons in anesthetized cats.

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Event-related EEG/MEG Synchronization and Desynchronization: Basic Principles (abs.) by Pfurtscheller G and Lopes da Silva FH

An internally or externally paced event results not only in the generation of an event-related potential (ERP) but also in a change in the ongoing EEG/MEG in form of an event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS).

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